The Hidden Dangers of Artificial Turf: Understanding PFAS Exposure

The Hidden Dangers of Artificial Turf: Understanding PFAS Exposure

Artificial turf has surged in popularity over recent years, becoming a common feature in playgrounds, sports fields, and residential lawns. Marketed for its low maintenance, durability, and aesthetic appeal, synthetic turf seems like an ideal alternative to natural grass. However, beneath this seemingly perfect solution lies a significant environmental and health concern—PFAS, or Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. Recent studies and mounting concerns from environmental groups suggest that artificial turf might not be as harmless as it appears, primarily due to these toxic chemicals.

What Are PFAS?

PFAS, or Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, are a group of man-made chemicals extensively used in various industrial applications and consumer products since the 1940s. These chemicals are found in non-stick cookware, water-repellent clothing, stain-resistant fabrics, firefighting foams, and even some food packaging. PFAS are often referred to as “forever chemicals” because they do not break down in the environment and can accumulate over time in the human body. Studies have linked PFAS exposure to several serious health issues, including cancer, liver damage, decreased fertility, increased risk of asthma and thyroid disease, immune system suppression, and developmental problems in children.

PFAS in Artificial Turf

California’s Legislative Actions

California has been at the forefront of addressing the potential hazards of PFAS in synthetic turf. In an effort to mitigate the risks associated with these chemicals, California has introduced legislation aimed at banning PFAS in artificial grass products. The state’s proactive approach is part of a broader campaign to reduce PFAS exposure in various consumer goods and the environment. In 2023, California made significant strides by advancing bills that target the use of PFAS in products like food packaging and cosmetics, expanding their efforts to include synthetic turf.

The legislative push in California is backed by scientific studies highlighting the persistence and toxicity of PFAS. Lawmakers and environmental advocates argue that eliminating PFAS from artificial turf is crucial to protect public health, particularly for children who are more vulnerable to chemical exposure. The state’s initiatives reflect a growing recognition of the need to address the widespread contamination caused by these “forever chemicals.”

Health Risks for Children

Children are particularly susceptible to chemical exposures for several reasons. Their bodies are still developing, making them more vulnerable to toxic substances. Moreover, children engage in more physical activities, increasing their chances of coming into contact with contaminated materials. Concerns have been raised about the potential health risks for children who play on artificial turf fields, which often contain recycled rubber crumb infill made from old tires, a known source of PFAS.

Research suggests that children can be exposed to PFAS through multiple pathways when playing on artificial turf. These include inhalation of dust particles, ingestion of small turf fragments, and skin contact with the synthetic materials. The health implications of such exposure are worrying, given the established links between PFAS and various health conditions. Parents, educators, and health professionals are increasingly concerned about the long-term effects of regular exposure to these harmful chemicals.

Global and Local Responses

Boston’s Ban on Artificial Turf

In a landmark decision, Boston has moved to ban artificial turf containing PFAS. This action reflects a broader trend among cities and municipalities to address the environmental and health risks associated with synthetic turf. Boston’s decision was influenced by a combination of scientific research, public advocacy, and a growing awareness of the dangers posed by PFAS.

The ban in Boston aims to protect public health and prevent further environmental contamination. By prohibiting the installation of PFAS-laden artificial turf, the city is taking a proactive stance to safeguard its residents. This move is also seen as a model for other cities considering similar bans, highlighting the importance of local government action in tackling complex environmental issues.

Mount Sinai’s Warning

The Mount Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Center has been vocal about the potential dangers of artificial turf. In a letter addressed to Maplewood Township, the center outlined the risks associated with PFAS exposure from synthetic turf, urging local authorities to reconsider its installation in public spaces. The letter emphasized the vulnerability of children and the need for precautionary measures to protect their health.

Mount Sinai’s warning is based on comprehensive research into the health effects of PFAS. The center’s experts argue that the use of artificial turf poses unnecessary risks, particularly when safer alternatives are available. Their advocacy highlights the role of medical and scientific communities in influencing public policy and promoting health-conscious decisions.

Ongoing Research and Regulatory Actions

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been actively involved in researching the safety of recycled tire crumb used in synthetic turf. In December 2016, the EPA released a status report as part of the Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds. The report highlighted the need for comprehensive studies to better understand the potential health impacts of exposure to the chemicals found in recycled tire crumb, including PFAS.

The EPA’s research is crucial for informing regulatory decisions and ensuring public safety. The agency is working to fill the knowledge gaps regarding the exposure pathways and health effects of PFAS in artificial turf. This research will help guide future policies and regulations aimed at minimizing the risks associated with synthetic turf and other consumer products containing these chemicals.

The Case of Maplewood Township

The debate over artificial turf installation has also reached local communities, such as Maplewood Township. In response to concerns raised by residents and health experts, the township has been grappling with the decision to install or ban synthetic turf. The controversy highlights the challenges faced by local governments in balancing public health concerns with budgetary constraints and community demands for modern recreational facilities.

The case of Maplewood Township illustrates the complexities involved in making informed decisions about artificial turf. Local authorities must weigh the potential health risks against the benefits of synthetic turf, considering factors such as maintenance costs, durability, and community preferences. The input from health experts, such as those from Mount Sinai, plays a critical role in shaping these decisions and promoting safer alternatives.

The Broader Environmental Impact

Beyond the immediate health risks, PFAS contamination from artificial turf poses broader environmental challenges. PFAS are highly persistent in the environment, meaning they do not break down easily and can accumulate over time. This persistence leads to widespread contamination of soil, water, and wildlife, creating long-term environmental health issues.

Artificial turf fields, particularly those with recycled rubber crumb infill, can leach PFAS into the surrounding environment. Rainwater runoff from these fields can carry PFAS into local waterways, contributing to water pollution. Additionally, the disposal of old artificial turf fields presents significant challenges, as the materials cannot be easily recycled and may end up in landfills, further contributing to environmental contamination.

The Impact of Transportation and Importation

Another critical environmental aspect to consider is the transportation and importation of synthetic turf, especially from less regulated countries. Synthetic turf is often imported from countries with lax environmental regulations, where the production process may involve significant pollution and inadequate disposal of industrial waste. Transporting these heavy materials over long distances also contributes to carbon emissions, exacerbating the environmental footprint of artificial turf.

Importing synthetic turf from countries with weaker environmental regulations can lead to increased pollution in those regions. The production process for synthetic turf involves the use of various chemicals and energy-intensive manufacturing techniques. In countries with less stringent environmental controls, these processes can result in higher emissions of pollutants and improper waste management, contributing to air and water pollution.

Furthermore, the carbon footprint of transporting synthetic turf from overseas can be substantial. Shipping large quantities of heavy materials across oceans and continents involves significant fuel consumption, leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions. This aspect of artificial turf’s environmental impact is often overlooked but is crucial in understanding the full scope of its ecological footprint.

The Role of Public Advocacy

Public advocacy has been instrumental in raising awareness about the risks associated with artificial turf and PFAS. Environmental organizations, health advocacy groups, and concerned citizens have been at the forefront of efforts to ban or regulate synthetic turf containing these harmful chemicals. Their efforts have led to increased media coverage, public discourse, and legislative action at various levels of government.

Advocacy groups play a crucial role in educating the public about the potential dangers of PFAS and promoting safer alternatives. By organizing community events, lobbying policymakers, and disseminating information through social media and other channels, these groups help to amplify the voices of concerned citizens and drive meaningful change.

Alternatives to Artificial Turf

As concerns about PFAS in artificial turf grow, attention is shifting towards safer alternatives. Natural grass remains the most obvious alternative, offering several benefits over synthetic turf, including lower environmental impact and reduced health risks. However, maintaining natural grass requires regular watering, mowing, and chemical nutrition.

Innovations in turf technology are offering new solutions, including the development of drought-tolerant natural grass varieties. When selecting the best grass for your outdoor space, it is essential to consider your specific priorities. These priorities might include factors such as shade tolerance, maintaining a green appearance year-round, the ability to withstand heavy foot traffic, and suitability for pet use. Understanding these needs will help you choose the most appropriate and sustainable grass solution for your environment.


The growing body of evidence surrounding PFAS and artificial turf underscores the need for caution and informed decision-making. As research continues to reveal the potential health risks associated with these “forever chemicals,” communities and policymakers must prioritize public health and environmental safety. The actions taken by states like California and cities like Boston serve as critical steps toward addressing this complex issue. By staying informed and advocating for safer alternatives, we can help ensure a healthier future for our children and the environment.

The story of artificial turf and PFAS is a compelling reminder of the importance of vigilance in our use of chemicals and materials. It highlights the interconnectedness of public health, environmental protection, and consumer safety. As we move forward, it is crucial to prioritize sustainable and health-conscious choices in all aspects of our lives. By doing so, we can protect not only our health but also the health of our planet for future generations.


  1. CalMatters: California synthetic turf PFAS
  2. EWG: California makes strides to ban toxic forever chemicals in artificial turf
  3. 3 Little Plums: Chemical exposure in artificial turf
  4. The Guardian: Boston bans artificial turf
  5. PEER: Toxic forever chemicals infest artificial turf
  6. Mount Sinai Exposomics: Artificial turf
  7. [EPA: Status report on recycled tire crumb](


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